wikipedia sek -Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Seit sind die 1- und 2-Öre-Münzen ungültig. Zusätzlich dazu verfügt jede der sechs Direktionen über ein eigenes MEK. In früheren Jahren wurden SEKs auch bei besonders gewalttätig verlaufenden Demonstrationen eingesetzt, allerdings haben sich seit den Auseinandersetzungen an der Baustelle der geplanten Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Wackersdorf in den späten er Jahren in diesem Bereich die Beweissicherungs- und Festnahmeeinheiten , in Bayern auch Unterstützungskommando USK genannt, etabliert. September um Zwei weitere Gedenkmünzen wurden anlässlich der Hochzeit der schwedischen Kronprinzessin Victoria und Daniel Westling am Ungültige Münzen können nicht mehr gewechselt werden und haben nur noch Sammler- oder Metallwert. Diese Summe war auf insgesamt etwa Millionen Banknoten verteilt.
With the introduction of a krona coin in , production of krona notes ceased and a 20 kronor note was introduced.
All remaining one-krona banknotes became invalid after 31 December All remaining five-krona and ten-krona banknotes became invalid after 31 December An exhaustive list of every banknote design since is not included, but the following five designs were or will be retired in — The oldest design began to be printed in A krona banknote a new denomination was printed — with a portrait of the writer Selma Lagerlöf and on the reverse was an engraved interpretation of a passage from the book Nils Holgersson's Wonderful Journey Through Sweden.
The banknote became invalid after 31 December A more secure version with the same portrait was printed from — and became invalid after 30 June A krona banknote 3rd design since was printed — with a portrait of the singer Jenny Lind and on the reverse was a picture of a silver harp and its tonal range.
A more secure version with the same portrait was introduced in and became invalid after 30 June A krona banknote a new denomination in a blue shade was introduced in with a portrait of King Charles XI and on the reverse an engraving depicts Christopher Polhem , the "father of Swedish engineering".
These banknotes became invalid on 31 December A krona banknote red, but without foil strips with the same portrait was printed — This banknote became invalid after 31 December The banknote had some controversy in because of the executions of " Snapphane " guerrilla warriors that King Charles XI ordered.
The first two designs of 1,krona banknotes printed from — and — became invalid on 31 December The third design with portrait of Jöns Jacob Berzelius printed and declared invalid on 31 December Circulation peaked at over 48 million in On 15 March , the Riksbank introduced a new, more secure 1,krona banknote with the same portrait and the Riksbank became the first central bank in the world to use the security feature of "Motion" a moving image in the striped band on the new 1,krona banknote.
When the banknote is tilted, the picture in the striped band appears to move. The Vasa banknotes with the security thread became invalid after 30 June at which time there was under 4 million in circulation.
Replacement banknotes featuring Dag Hammarskjöld became valid on 1 October , but were circulated in considerably fewer quantities less than 3.
The 10,krona banknote was always printed in small quantities as it was one of the most valuable banknotes in the world. The first design featuring the Head of Mercury was printed in and became invalid after 31 December The second design was printed and featured a portrait of Gustav VI Adolf, and became invalid after 31 December This would also include a new krona banknote.
She pointed out that it was very inappropriate to include something by Wagner, whose works were associated with Nazi Germany , in a time of increasing problems with antisemitism in Sweden.
Wagner died long before the Nazi era, and the association is that Hitler liked his music. The Riksbank replied saying that it is "unfortunate that the choice of design is seen as negative", and stated that it is not going to be changed.
Dagens Nyheter journalist Björn Wiman went further in his criticism, condemning the Riksbank for selecting Nilsson at all for the krona banknote.
He brings up an example from Nilsson's autobiography, where she described Mauritz Rosengarten from Decca using antisemitic jokes about greed.
To see where Swedish krona ranks in "most traded currencies", read the article on the Foreign exchange market. The exchange rate of the Swedish krona against other currencies has historically been dependent on the monetary policy pursued by Sweden at the time.
Since the Swedish banking rescue , a managed float regimen has been upheld. The weakest the krona has been relative to the euro was 6 March when one euro bought The strongest the krona has been relative to the euro was on 13 August when one euro bought 8.
The weakness in the euro was due to the crisis in Greece which began in July and fear of further spreading to Italy and Spain.
The average exchange rate since the beginning of when the euro banknote and coins were issued and 1 March was 9. According to the accession treaty , Sweden is required to join the eurozone and therefore must convert to the euro once the convergence criteria are met.
By simply not joining the exchange rate mechanism, the Swedish government is provided a formal loophole avoiding the theoretical requirement of adopting the euro.
Some of Sweden's major parties continue to believe it would be in the national interest to join, but all parties have pledged to abide by the results of the referendum, [ needs update ] and none have shown any interest in raising the issue again.
There was an agreement among the parties not to discuss the issue before the general election.
In a poll from May , In February , Fredrik Reinfeldt , the Prime Minister of Sweden stated that a new referendum on the euro issue will not be held until support is gained from the people and all the major parties.
Therefore, the timing is now at the discretion of the Social Democrats. He added, the request of Mona Sahlin , former leader of the Social Democratic Party, for deferral of a new referendum until after the mandate period should be respected.
As of [update] , support for Swedish membership of the euro among the general population is low. Sweden is a wealthy country and in the s and s the value of banknotes and coins per capita was one of the highest in the world.
In , the largest banknote worth 10,kr that was in circulation since was declared invalid and no longer was legal tender.
For a discussion of the financial and banking crisis that hit Sweden in the early s see the article History of Sweden —present and Swedish banking rescue.
Unlike the USA and Canada which by policy never declare issued money invalid, Sweden and most other European countries have a date when older series of banknotes or older coin designs are invalid and are no longer legal tender.
From the years to banknotes and coins were circulated at a near constant level of around 12, krona per capita, but in a modified 1,krona banknote with a motion security strip was produced.
Within seven years the banknotes without the strip were declared invalid, leaving only a radically reduced number of banknotes with foil valid.
The Vasa 1,krona banknote without the foil strip became invalid after 31 December , and the pieces with the foil strip are invalid after 30 June Also the Swish mobile payment system was established in Sweden in and become a popular alternative to cash payments.
Although many countries are performing larger and larger share of transactions by electronic means, Sweden is unique in that it is also reducing its cash in circulation.
In upcoming years Sweden may be surpassed by Mexico, and Turkey. The circulation levels in the table above were reported to the Bank for International Settlements.
Possible discrepancies with these statistics and other sources may be because some sources exclude "commemorative banknotes and coins" 3.
Circulation levels of cash on a per capita basis, are reduced by The Riksbanken predicted that between and , the amount of cash in circulation will decline by 20 to 50 percent.
Speculation about Sweden declaring all banknotes and coins invalid at some future date is widespread in the media with Björn Ulvaeus as a celebrity advocate of a cashless Sweden which he believes will result in a safer society because simple robbery will involve stealing goods that must be fenced.
The Riksbank deposit rate the deposit rate is the rate of interest banks receive when they deposit funds in their accounts at the Riksbank overnight and is normally 0.
The deposit rate went negative on July 9, and is forecast to remain negative through the fourth quarter of The suspicion became widespread that the huge reduction in circulation levels of the highest denomination banknote is related to monetary policy.
Traditional economic theory holds that people will convert bank accounts into cash without the inducement of earning interest. Cecilia Skingsley has stated that "This is a development steered by market forces and not by the authorities.
The Riksbank will continue issuing banknotes and coins as long as there is demand for them in society. It is our statutory duty and we will of course live up to it.
The value of the payments between households, companies and authorities in Sweden amounts to about 20, kronor annual per capita in cash.
In shops, almost one in seven payments is made in cash. More than half of the adult population has the Swish payment app.
Annual withdrawals from Swedish ATMs in amount to 15, kronor per capita. According to Skingsley, "what some consumers, smaller companies and local clubs often see as a problem, is not so much getting hold of cash, but being able to deposit it in a bank account.
To see how circulation of the Swedish krona ranks compared to other currencies see Bank for International Settlements Red Books.
The e-krona is a proposed electronic currency to be issued directly by the Riksbank. It is different than the electronic transfers using commercial bank money as central bank money has no nominal credit risk, as it stands for a claim on the central bank, which cannot go bankrupt.
The declining use of cash in Sweden is going to be reinforced cyclically. As more and more businesses find they can have a functional business without accepting cash, the number of businesses refusing to accept cash will increase.
That will re-enforce the need for more and more citizens to get the Swish app which is already used by half the population.
Cash machines, which are controlled by a Swedish bank consortium, are being dismantled by the hundreds, especially in rural areas. The Riksbank has not taken a decision on issuing e-krona.
First, the Riksbank needs to investigate a number of technical, legal and practical issues. Although it may appear simple at first glance to issue e-krona, this is something entirely new for a central bank and there is no precedent to follow".
If the Riksbank chooses to issue e-krona, it is not to replace cash, but to act as a complement to it.
It is our statutory duty and we will of course continue to live up to it," concluded Deputy Governor Cecilia Skingsley.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Swedish monarchy, see Monarchy of Sweden. Sweden and the euro.
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But our determination was never shaken, nor hope abandoned. Chiang grew up at a time in which military defeats, natural disasters, revolts, and the machinations [ neutrality is disputed ] of the empress dowager Cixi had left the Manchu -dominated Qing Empire destabilized and in debt.
Successive demands of the Western powers and Japan since the Opium War had left China owing millions of taels of silver. During his first visits to Japan to pursue a military career in , he describes having strong nationalistic feelings with a desire among other things to, "expel the Manchu Qing and to restore China".
He began his military training at the Baoding Military Academy in , the same year Japan left its bimetallic currency standard, devaluing its yen.
There, he came under the influence of compatriots to support the revolutionary movement to overthrow the Qing and to set up a Han -dominated Chinese republic.
He befriended fellow Zhejiangese Chen Qimei , and in Chen brought Chiang into the Tongmenghui , an important revolutionary brotherhood of the era.
Finishing his schooling, Chiang served in the Imperial Japanese Army from to After learning of the outbreak October of the Wuchang Uprising , Chiang returned to China in , intending to fight as an artillery officer.
He served in the revolutionary forces, leading a regiment in Shanghai under his friend and mentor Chen Qimei , as one of Chen's chief lieutenants.
In early a dispute arose between Chen and Tao Chen-chang , an influential member of the Revolutionary Alliance who opposed both Sun Yat-sen and Chen.
Tao sought to avoid escalating the quarrel by hiding in a hospital but Chiang discovered him there. Chiang may not have taken part in the act, but would later assume responsibility to help Chen avoid trouble.
Chen valued Chiang despite Chiang's already legendary temper, regarding such bellicosity as useful in a military leader.
During Chiang's time in Shanghai, the British-administered Shanghai International Settlement police watched him and charged him with various felonies.
These charges never resulted in a trial, and Chiang was never jailed. In Shanghai, Chiang cultivated ties with the city's underworld gangs, which were dominated by the notorious Green Gang and its leader Du Yuesheng.
Sun Yat-sen's political career reached its lowest point during this time when most of his old Revolutionary Alliance comrades refused to join him in the exiled Chinese Revolutionary Party.
In , Sun Yat-sen moved his base of operations to Canton now known as Guangzhou , and Chiang joined him in At this time Sun remained largely sidelined; and, without arms or money, was soon expelled from Kwangtung and exiled again to Shanghai.
He was restored to Kwangtung with mercenary help in After returning to Kwangtung, a rift developed between Sun, who sought to militarily unify China under the KMT, and Guangdong Governor Chen Jiongming , who wanted to implement a federalist system with Guangdong as a model province.
They abandoned their attacks on Chen on August 9, taking a British ship to Hong Kong  and traveling to Shanghai by steamer.
Sun regained control of Kwangtung in early , again with the help of mercenaries from Yunnan and from the Comintern. That same year, Sun sent Chiang to spend three months in Moscow studying the Soviet political and military system.
During his trip in Russia, Chiang met Leon Trotsky and other Soviet leaders, but quickly came to the conclusion that the Russian model of government was not suitable for China.
Chiang later sent his eldest son, Ching-kuo, to study in Russia. After his father's split from the First United Front in , Ching-kuo was forced to stay there, as a hostage, until Chiang wrote in his diary, "It is not worth it to sacrifice the interest of the country for the sake of my son.
Chiang resigned from the office for one month in disagreement with Sun's extremely close cooperation with the Comintern, but returned at Sun's demand.
The early years at Whampoa allowed Chiang to cultivate a cadre of young officers loyal to both the KMT and himself.
Throughout his rise to power, Chiang also benefited from membership within the nationalist Tiandihui fraternity, to which Sun Yat-sen also belonged, and which remained a source of support during his leadership of the Kuomintang.
Sun Yat-sen died on 12 March ,  creating a power vacuum in the Kuomintang. In August, Liao was assassinated and Hu arrested for his connections to the murderers.
Wang Jingwei, who had succeeded Sun as chairman of the Kwangtung regime, seemed ascendant but was forced into exile by Chiang following the Canton Coup.
The SS Yongfeng , renamed the Zhongshan in Sun's honor, had appeared off Changzhou  —the location of the Whampoa Academy —on apparently falsified orders  and amid a series of unusual phone calls trying to ascertain Chiang's location.
On 5 June , he was named commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army  and, on July 27, he finally launched Sun's long-delayed Northern Expedition , aimed at conquering the northern warlords and bringing China together under the KMT.
The NRA branched into three divisions: Having taken Nanjing in March and briefly visited Shanghai, now under the control of his close ally Bai Chongxi , Chiang halted his campaign and prepared a violent break with Wang's leftist elements, which he believed threatened his control of the KMT.
Now with an established national government in Nanjing, and supported by conservative allies including Hu Hanmin , Chiang's expulsion of the Communists and their Soviet advisers led to the beginning of the Chinese Civil War.
Wang Jingwei's National Government was weak militarily, and was soon ended by Chiang with the support of a local warlord Li Zongren of Guangxi. Eventually, Wang and his leftist party surrendered to Chiang and joined him in Nanjing.
In December, the Manchurian warlord Zhang Xueliang pledged allegiance to Chiang's government, completing Chiang's nominal unification of China and ending the Warlord Era.
In , when he was setting up the Nationalist government in Nanjing, he was preoccupied with "the elevation of our leader Dr. Sun Yat-sen to the rank of 'Father of our Chinese Republic'.
Sun worked for 40 years to lead our people in the Nationalist cause, and we cannot allow any other personality to usurp this honored position".
He asked Chen Guofu to purchase a photograph that had been taken in Japan around or When told that it was not for sale, Chiang offered a million dollars to recover the photo and its negative.
They must be destroyed as soon as possible. It would be embarrassing to have our Father of the Chinese Republic shown in a subordinate position".
Chiang made great efforts to gain recognition as the official successor of Sun Yat-sen. In a pairing of great political significance, Chiang was Sun's brother-in-law: Originally rebuffed in the early s, Chiang managed to ingratiate himself to some degree with Soong Mei-ling's mother by first divorcing his wife and concubines and promising to sincerely study the precepts of Christianity.
He read the copy of the Bible that May-ling had given him twice before making up his mind to become a Christian, and three years after his marriage he was baptized in the Soong's Methodist church.
Although some observers felt that he adopted Christianity as a political move, studies of his recently opened diaries suggest that his faith was strong and sincere and that he felt that Christianity reinforced Confucian moral teachings.
Upon reaching Beijing, Chiang paid homage to Sun Yat-sen and had his body moved to the new capital of Nanjing to be enshrined in a grand mausoleum.
On April 12, , Chiang carried out a purge of thousands of suspected Communists and dissidents in Shanghai, and began large-scale massacres across the country collectively known as the "White Terror".
During April, more than 12, people were killed in Shanghai. The killings drove most Communists from urban cities and into the rural countryside, where the KMT was less powerful.
One of the most famous quotes from Chiang during that time was that he would rather mistakenly kill 1, innocent people rather than allow one Communist to escape.
No concrete number can be verified. Having gained control of China, Chiang's party remained surrounded by "surrendered" warlords who remained relatively autonomous within their own regions.
On 10 October , Chiang was named director of the State Council, the equivalent to President of the country, in addition to his other titles. The ultimate goal of the KMT revolution was democracy, which was not considered to be feasible in China's fragmented state.
Since the KMT had completed the first step of revolution through seizure of power in , Chiang's rule thus began a period of what his party considered to be "political tutelage" in Sun Yat-sen's name.
During this so-called Republican Era, many features of a modern, functional Chinese state emerged and developed. From to , a time period known as known as the Nanjing decade , some aspects of foreign imperialism , concessions and privileges [ clarification needed ] in China were moderated through diplomacy.
The government acted to modernize the legal and penal systems, attempted to stabilize prices, amortize debts, reform the banking and currency systems, build railroads and highways, improve public health facilities, legislate against traffic in narcotics , and augment industrial and agricultural production.
Not all of these projects were successfully completed. Efforts were made towards improving education standards, and in an effort to unify Chinese society, the New Life Movement was launched to encourage Confucian moral values and personal discipline.
Guoyu "national language" was promoted as a standard tongue , and the establishment of communications facilities including radio were used to encourage a sense of Chinese nationalism in a way that was not possible when the nation lacked an effective central government.
Any successes that the Nationalists did make, however, were met with constant political and military upheavals. While much of the urban areas were now under the control of the KMT, much of the countryside remained under the influence of weakened yet undefeated warlords and Communists.
Chiang often resolved issues of warlord obstinacy through military action, but such action was costly in terms of men and material.
The Central Plains War alone nearly bankrupted the Nationalist government and caused almost , casualties on both sides. In , Hu Hanmin , Chiang's old supporter, publicly voiced a popular concern that Chiang's position as both premier and president flew in the face of the democratic ideals of the Nationalist government.
Chiang had Hu put under house arrest , but he was released after national condemnation, after which he left Nanjing and supported a rival government in Canton.
The split resulted in a military conflict between Hu's Kwangtung government and Chiang's Nationalist government. Chiang only won the campaign against Hu after a shift in allegiance by the warlord Zhang Xueliang , who had previously supported Hu Hanmin.
Throughout his rule, complete eradication of the Communists remained Chiang's dream. After assembling his forces in Kiangsi , Chiang led his armies against the newly established Chinese Soviet Republic.
The Communists, tipped off that a Nationalist offensive was imminent, retreated in the Long March , during which Mao Zedong rose from a mere military official to the most influential leader of the Communist Party of China.
Chiang, as a nationalist and a Confucianist, was against the iconoclasm of the May Fourth Movement. Motivated by his sense of nationalism, he viewed some Western ideas as foreign, and he believed that the great introduction of Western ideas and literature that the May Fourth Movement promoted was not beneficial to China.
Sun criticized the May Fourth intellectuals as corrupting the morals of China's youth. Contrary to Communist propaganda that he was pro-capitalism, Chiang antagonized the capitalists of Shanghai, often attacking them and confiscating their capital and assets for the use of the government.
Chiang confiscated the wealth of capitalists even while he denounced and fought against communists. Chiang continued the anti-capitalist ideology of Sun Yat-sen, directing Kuomintang media to openly attack capitalists and capitalism, while demanding government controlled industry instead.
Chiang has often been interpreted as being pro-capitalist, but this conclusion may be problematic. Shanghai capitalists did briefly support him out of fear of communism in , but this support eroded in when Chiang turned his tactics of intimidation on them.
The relationship between Chiang Kai-shek and Chinese capitalists remained poor throughout the period of his administration. Once Chiang Kai-shek was done with his White Terror on pro-communist laborers, he proceeded to turn on the capitalists.
Gangster connections allowed Chiang to attack them in the International Settlement, successfully forcing capitalists to back him up with their assets for his military expeditions.
Chiang viewed Japan, America, the Soviet Union , France and Britain as all being imperialists with nobody else's interests in mind but their own, seeing them as hypocritical to condemn each other for imperialism which they all practiced.
Some sources attribute Chiang Kai-shek with responsibility for millions of deaths   in scattered mass death events caused by the Nationalist Government of China.
He is certainly partially responsible for the Yellow River flood , which killed hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians in order to fend off a Japanese advance.
Regardless the Nationalist government of China has been accused of mass killings by Rummel, estimating the Nationalist government of China is responsible for between 6 and He attributes this death toll to a few major causes, for example: He returned shortly afterwards, adopting the slogan "first internal pacification, then external resistance".
However, this policy of avoiding a frontal war against the Japanese was widely unpopular. In , while Chiang was seeking first to defeat the Communists , Japan launched an advance on Shanghai and bombarded Nanjing.
This disrupted Chiang's offensives against the Communists for a time, although it was the northern factions of Hu Hanmin 's Kwangtung government notably the 19th Route Army that primarily led the offensive against the Japanese during this skirmish.
Brought into the Nationalist army immediately after the battle, the 19th Route Army's career under Chiang would be cut short after it was disbanded for demonstrating socialist tendencies.
However, Chiang's allied commander Zhang Xueliang , whose forces were used in his attack and whose homeland of Manchuria had been recently invaded by the Japanese, did not support the attack on the Communists.
After releasing Chiang and returning to Nanjing with him, Zhang was placed under house arrest and the generals who had assisted him were executed.
Chiang's commitment to the Second United Front was nominal at best, and it was all but broken up in The Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in July , and in August of that year Chiang sent , of his best-trained and equipped soldiers to defend Shanghai.
With over , Chinese casualties, Chiang lost the political cream of his Whampoa -trained officers. Although Chiang lost militarily, the battle dispelled Japanese claims that it could conquer China in three months and demonstrated to the Western powers that the Chinese would continue the fight.
By December, the capital city of Nanjing had fallen to the Japanese resulting in the Nanking Massacre. Chiang moved the government inland, first to Wuhan and later to Chongqing.
Having lost most of China's economic and industrial centers, Chiang withdrew into the hinterlands, stretching the Japanese supply lines and bogging down Japanese soldiers in the vast Chinese interior.
As part of a policy of protracted resistance, Chiang authorized the use of scorched earth tactics, resulting in many civilian deaths. During the Nationalists' retreat from Zhengzhou , the dams around the city were deliberately destroyed by the Nationalist army in order to delay the Japanese advance, killing , people in the subsequent Yellow River flood.
After heavy fighting, the Japanese occupied Wuhan in the fall of and the Nationalists retreated farther inland, to Chongqing. While en route to Chongqing, the Nationalist army intentionally started the "fire of Changsha" , as a part of the scorched earth policy.
The fire destroyed much of the city, killed twenty thousand civilians, and left hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Due to an organizational error it was claimed , the fire was begun without any warning to the residents of the city.
The Nationalists eventually blamed three local commanders for the fire and executed them. The Japanese, controlling the puppet-state of Manchukuo and much of China's eastern seaboard, appointed Wang Jingwei as a Quisling -ruler of the occupied Chinese territories around Nanjing.
He died in , within a year of the end of World War II. A border crisis erupted with Tibet in Under orders from Chiang Kai-shek, Ma Bufang repaired Yushu airport to prevent Tibetan separatists from seeking independence.
Ma Bufang attacked the Tibetan Buddhist Tsang monastery in Chiang was even named the Supreme Commander of Allied forces in the China war zone.
General Joseph Stilwell , an American military adviser to Chiang during World War II, strongly criticized Chiang and his generals for what he saw as their incompetence and corruption.
This was meant to fulfill President Roosevelt's promise to Chiang Kai-shek to begin bombing operations against Japan by November However, Chiang Kai-shek's subordinates refused to take airbase construction seriously until enough capital had been delivered to permit embezzlement on a massive scale.
Chiang played the Soviets and Americans against each other during the war. He first told the Americans that they would be welcome in talks between the Soviet Union and China, then secretly told the Soviets that the Americans were unimportant and that their opinions would not be considered.
Chiang also used American support and military power in China against the ambitions of the Soviet Union to dominate the talks, stopping the Soviets from taking full advantage of the situation in China with the threat of American military action against the Soviets.
Roosevelt , through General Stilwell, privately made it clear that they preferred that the French not reacquire French Indochina modern day Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos after the war was over.
Roosevelt offered Chiang control of all of Indochina. It was said that Chiang replied: After the war, , Chinese troops under General Lu Han were sent by Chiang Kai-shek to northern Indochina north of the 16th parallel to accept the surrender of Japanese occupying forces there, and remained in Indochina until , when the French returned.
In February he also forced the French to surrender all of their concessions in China and to renounce their extraterritorial privileges in exchange for the Chinese withdrawing from northern Indochina and allowing French troops to reoccupy the region.
Following France's agreement to these demands, the withdrawal of Chinese troops began in March During the Cairo Conference in , Chiang said that Roosevelt asked him whether China would like to claim the Ryukyu Islands from Japan in addition to retaking Taiwan, the Pescadores , and Manchuria.
Chiang claims that he said he was in favor of an international presence on the islands. In , when Japan surrendered , Chiang's Chongqing government was ill-equipped and ill-prepared to reassert its authority in formerly Japanese-occupied China , and it asked the Japanese to postpone their surrender until Kuomintang KMT authority could arrive to take over.
American troops and weapons soon bolstered KMT forces, allowing them to reclaim cities. The countryside, however, remained largely under Communist control.
For over a year after the Japanese surrender, rumors circulated throughout China that the Japanese had entered into a secret agreement with Chiang, in which the Japanese would assist the Nationalists in fighting the Communists in exchange for the protection of Japanese persons and property there.
Many top nationalist generals, including Chiang, had studied and trained in Japan before the Nationalists had returned to the mainland in the s, and maintained close personal friendships with top Japanese officers.
The Japanese general in charge of all forces in China, General Yasuji Okamura , had personally trained officers who later became generals in Chiang's staff.
Reportedly, General Okamura, before surrendering command of all Japanese military forces in Nanjing, offered Chiang control of all 1.
Reportedly, Chiang seriously considered accepting this offer, but declined only in the knowledge that the United States would certainly be outraged by the gesture.
Even so, armed Japanese troops remained in China well into , with some noncommissioned officers finding their way into the Nationalist officer corps.
Westad says the Communists won the Civil War because they made fewer military mistakes than Chiang Kai-Shek, and because in his search for a powerful centralized government, Chiang antagonized too many interest groups in China.
Furthermore, his party was weakened in the war against Japan. Meanwhile, the Communists told different groups, such as peasants, exactly what they wanted to hear, and cloaked themselves in the cover of Chinese Nationalism.
Due to concerns about widespread and well-documented corruption in Chiang's government throughout his rule, the U.
Alleged infiltration of the U. Although Chiang had achieved status abroad as a world leader, his government deteriorated as the result of corruption and inflation.
In his diary on June , Chiang wrote that the KMT had failed, not because of external enemies but because of rot from within.
The Nationalists initially had superiority in arms and men, but their lack of popularity, infiltration by Communist agents, low morale, and disorganization soon allowed the Communists to gain the upper hand in the civil war.
A new Constitution was promulgated in , and Chiang was elected by the National Assembly as the first term President of the Republic of China on 20 May This marked the beginning of what was termed the "democratic constitutional government" period by the KMT political orthodoxy, but the Communists refused to recognize the new Constitution, and its government, as legitimate.
Chiang resigned as President on 21 January , as KMT forces suffered terrible losses and defections to the Communists. Shortly after Chiang's resignation the Communists halted their advances and attempted to negotiate the virtual surrender of the ROC.
Li attempted to negotiate milder terms that would have ended the civil war, but without success. When it became clear that Li was unlikely to accept Mao's terms, the Communists issued an ultimatum in April , warning that they would resume their attacks if Li did not agree within five days.
Li's attempts to carry out his policies faced varying degrees of opposition from Chiang's supporters, and were generally unsuccessful.
When the Communists captured the Nationalist capital of Nanjing in April , Li refused to accompany the central government as it fled to Guangdong , instead expressing his dissatisfaction with Chiang by retiring to Guangxi.
The former warlord Yan Xishan , who had fled to Nanjing only one month before, quickly insinuated himself within the Li-Chiang rivalry, attempting to have Li and Chiang reconcile their differences in the effort to resist the Communists.
At Chiang's request Yan visited Li in order to convince Li not to withdraw from public life. Yan broke down in tears while talking of the loss of his home province of Shanxi to the Communists, and warned Li that the Nationalist cause was doomed unless Li went to Guangdong.
Li agreed to return under the condition that Chiang surrender most of the gold and US dollars in his possession that belonged to the central government, and that Chiang stop overriding Li's authority.
After Yan communicated these demands and Chiang agreed to comply with them, Li departed for Guangdong. In Guangdong, Li attempted to create a new government composed of both Chiang supporters and those opposed to Chiang.
Li's first choice of premier was Chu Cheng, a veteran member of the Kuomintang who had been virtually driven into exile due to his strong opposition to Chiang.
By this time Yan was well known for his adaptability and Chiang welcomed his appointment. Conflict between Chiang and Li persisted. Although he had agreed to do so as a prerequisite of Li's return, Chiang refused to surrender more than a fraction of the wealth that he had sent to Taiwan.
Without being backed by gold or foreign currency, the money issued by Li and Yan quickly declined in value until it became virtually worthless.
Although he did not hold a formal executive position in the government, Chiang continued to issue orders to the army, and many officers continued to obey Chiang rather than Li.
The inability of Li to coordinate KMT military forces led him to put into effect a plan of defense that he had contemplated in Instead of attempting to defend all of southern China, Li ordered what remained of the Nationalist armies to withdraw to Guangxi and Guangdong, hoping that he could concentrate all available defenses on this smaller, and more easily defensible, area.
The object of Li's strategy was to maintain a foothold on the Chinese mainland in the hope that the United States would eventually be compelled to enter the war in China on the Nationalist side.
Chiang opposed Li's plan of defense because it would have placed most of the troops still loyal to Chiang under the control of Li and Chiang's other opponents in the central government.
To overcome Chiang's intransigence Li began ousting Chiang's supporters within the central government. Yan Xishan continued in his attempts to work with both sides, creating the impression among Li's supporters that he was a "stooge" of Chiang, while those who supported Chiang began to bitterly resent Yan for his willingness to work with Li.
Because of the rivalry between Chiang and Li, Chiang refused to allow Nationalist troops loyal to him to aid in the defense of Kwangsi and Canton, with the result that Communist forces occupied Canton in October After Canton fell to the Communists, Chiang relocated the government to Chungking , while Li effectively surrendered his powers and flew to New York for treatment of his chronic duodenum illness at the Hospital of Columbia University.
Truman , and denounced Chiang as a dictator and an usurper. Li vowed that he would "return to crush" Chiang once he returned to China.
Li remained in exile, and did not return to Taiwan. Chiang Kai-shek, father and son, sang the Republic of China's national anthem while leaving the Academy all the way to the airfield.
Chiang Kai-shek would never return to the mainland. Chiang did not re-assume the presidency until 1 March Chiang relieved Li of the position as vice-president in the National Assembly on March Chiang moved the government to Taipei , Taiwan, where he resumed his duties as President of the Republic of China on 1 March He continued to claim sovereignty over all of China, including the territories held by his government and the People's Republic , as well as territory the latter ceded to foreign governments, such as Tuva and Outer Mongolia.
In the context of the Cold War , most of the Western world recognized this position and the ROC represented China in the United Nations and other international organizations until the s.
During his presidency on Taiwan, Chiang continued making preparations in order to take back mainland China. He developed the ROC army in order to prepare for an invasion of the mainland, and to defend Taiwan in case of an attack by the Communist forces.
It was not until the s that these troops were finally airlifted to Taiwan. Despite the democratic constitution, the government under Chiang was a one-party state , consisting almost completely of mainlanders ; the " Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion " greatly enhanced executive powers, and the goal of retaking mainland China allowed the KMT to maintain a monopoly on power and the prohibition of opposition parties.
The government's official line for these martial law provisions stemmed from the claim that emergency provisions were necessary, since the Communists and KMT were still in a state of war.
Seeking to promote Chinese nationalism , Chiang's government actively ignored and suppressed local cultural expression, even forbidding the use of local languages in mass media broadcasts or during class sessions.
The first decades after the Nationalists moved the seat of government to the province of Taiwan are associated with the organized effort to resist Communism known as the "White Terror" , during which about , Taiwanese were imprisoned for their real or perceived opposition to the Kuomintang.
Under Chiang, the government recognized limited civil and economic freedoms, property rights personal [ citation needed ] and intellectual and other liberties.
Despite these restrictions, free debate within the confines of the legislature was permitted. Under the pretext that new elections could not be held in Communist-occupied constituencies, the National Assembly, Legislative Yuan , and Control Yuan members held their posts indefinitely.
The Temporary Provisions also allowed Chiang to remain as president beyond the two-term limit in the Constitution.
He was reelected by the National Assembly as president four times—doing so in , , , and Believing that corruption and a lack of morals were key reasons that the KMT lost mainland China to the Communists, Chiang attempted to purge corruption by dismissing members of the KMT accused of graft.
Some major figures in the previous mainland Chinese government, such as H. Soong , exiled themselves to the United States. Although politically authoritarian and, to some extent, dominated by government-owned industries, Chiang's new Taiwanese state also encouraged economic development, especially in the export sector.
A popular sweeping Land Reform Act, as well as American foreign aid during the s, laid the foundation for Taiwan's economic success, becoming one of the Four Asian Tigers.
After Chiang's death, the next president, Chiang's son, Chiang Ching-kuo , and Chiang Ching-kuo's successor, Lee Teng-hui a native Taiwanese, would, in the s and s, increase native Taiwanese representation in the government and loosen the many authoritarian controls of the early era of ROC control in Taiwan.
After meeting with the Japanese Prime Minister, Eisaku Sato , Whitlam observed that the reason Japan at that time was hesitant to withdraw recognition from the Nationalist government was "the presence of a treaty between the Japanese government and that of Chiang Kai-shek".
Sato explained that the continued recognition of Japan towards the Nationalist government was due largely to the personal relationship that various members of the Japanese government felt towards Chiang.
This relationship was rooted largely in the generous and lenient treatment of Japanese prisoners-of-war by the Nationalist government in the years immediately following the Japanese surrender in , and was felt especially strongly as a bond of personal obligation by the most senior members then in power.
Although Japan recognized the People's Republic in , shortly after Kakuei Tanaka succeeded Sato as Prime Minister of Japan, the memory of this relationship was strong enough to be reported by The New York Times 15 April as a significant factor inhibiting trade between Japan and the mainland.
There is speculation that a clash between Communist forces and a Japanese warship in was caused by Chinese anger after Prime Minister Takeo Fukuda attended Chiang's funeral.
Historically, Japanese attempts to normalize their relationship with the People's Republic were met with accusations of ingratitude in Taiwan.
Chiang was suspicious that covert operatives of the United States plotted a coup against him. In , Chiang Ching-kuo became director of the secret police Bureau of Investigation and Statistics , which he remained until Chiang was also suspicious of politicians who were overly friendly to the United States, and considered them his enemies.
In , seven days after surviving an assassination attempt, Wu Kuo-chen lost his position as governor of Taiwan Province to Chiang Ching-kuo.
After fleeing to United States the same year, he became a vocal critic of Chiang's family and government.
He reorganized and Sovietized the political officer corps , and propagated Kuomintang ideology throughout the military.
In , 26 years after Chiang came to Taiwan, he died in Taipei at the age of He had suffered a heart attack and pneumonia in the foregoing months and died from renal failure aggravated with advanced cardiac malfunction on April 5.
A month of mourning was declared. In mainland China, however, Chiang's death was met with little apparent mourning and Communist state-run newspapers gave the brief headline "Chiang Kai-shek Has Died.
The hope was to have both buried at their birthplace in Fenghua if and when it was possible. Chiang's ultimate funeral ceremony became a political battle between the wishes of the state and the wishes of his family.
Yen's presidency was interim; Chiang Ching-kuo, who was the Premier , became President after Yen's term ended three years later. Chiang's portrait hung over Tiananmen Square before Mao's portrait was set up in its place.
Chiang was popular among many people and dressed in plain, simple clothes, unlike contemporary Chinese warlords who dressed extravagantly.
In the Philippines , a school was named in his honor in Today, Chiang Kai Shek College is the largest educational institution for the Chinoy community in the country.
The Kuomintang used traditional Chinese religious ceremonies, and promoted Martyrdom in Chinese culture. Kuomintang ideology promoted the view that the souls of Party martyrs who died fighting for the Kuomintang, the revolution, and the party founder Dr.
Sun Yat-sen were sent to heaven. Chiang Kai-shek believed that these martyrs witnessed events on earth from heaven.
Sun's soul in heaven with a sacrificial ceremony at the Xiangshan Temple in Beijing in July Chiang Kai-shek considered both the Han Chinese and all the minority peoples of China, the Five Races Under One Union , as descendants of Yellow Emperor , the Yellow Emperor and semi mythical founder of the Chinese nation, and belonging to the Chinese Nation Zhonghua Minzu and he introduced this into Kuomintang ideology, which was propagated into the educational system of the Republic of China.
Chiang's legacy has been the target of heated debates because of the different views held about him. For some, Chiang was a national hero who led the victorious Northern Expedition against the Beiyang Warlords in , achieving Chinese unification , and who subsequently led China to ultimate victory against Japan in Some blamed him for not doing enough against the Japanese forces in the lead-up to, and during, the Second Sino-Japanese War , preferring to withhold his armies for the fight against the Communists, or merely waiting and hoping that the United States would get involved.
Some also see him as a champion of anti-Communism , being a key figure during the formative years of the World Anti-Communist League.
During the Cold War , he was also seen as the leader who led Free China and the bulwark against a possible Communist invasion. However, Chiang presided over purges, political authoritarianism, and graft during his tenure in mainland China, and ruled throughout a period of imposed martial law.
His governments were accused of being corrupt even before he even took power in He also allied with known criminals like Du Yuesheng for political and financial gains.
Some opponents charge that Chiang's efforts in developing Taiwan were mostly to make the island a strong base from which to one day return to mainland China, and that Chiang had little regard for the long-term prosperity and well-being of the Taiwanese people.
Today, Chiang's popularity in Taiwan is divided along political lines, enjoying greater support among Kuomintang KMT supporters.
He is generally unpopular among Democratic Progressive Party DPP voters and supporters who blame him for the thousands killed during the February 28 Incident and criticise his subsequent dictatorial rule.
In contrast, his image has been rehabilitated in contemporary Mainland China. Until recently portrayed as a villain who fought against the "liberation" of China by the Communists, since the s, he has been portrayed by the media in a neutral or slightly positive light as a Chinese nationalist who tried to bring about national unification and resisted the Japanese invasion during World War II.
His constant demands for Western support and funding also earned him the nickname of "General Cash-My-Check". In the West he has been criticized for his poor military skills.
He had a record of issuing unrealistic orders and persistently attempting to fight unwinnable battles, leading to the loss of his best troops.
In recent years, there has been an attempt to find a more moderate interpretation of Chiang. Chiang is now increasingly perceived as a man simply overwhelmed by the events in China, having to fight simultaneously Communists, Japanese, and provincial warlords while having to reconstruct and unify the country.
His sincere, albeit often unsuccessful attempts to build a more powerful nation have been noted by scholars such as Jonathan Fenby and Rana Mitter.
Mitter has observed that, ironically, today's China is closer to Chiang's vision than to Mao Zedong 's. He argues that the Communists, since the s, have essentially created the state envisioned by Chiang in the s.
Mitter concludes by writing that "one can imagine Chiang Kai-shek's ghost wandering round China today nodding in approval, while Mao's ghost follows behind him, moaning at the destruction of his vision".
If he had been a bit more trustworthy, if his character was somewhat better, the CCP would have been unable to beat him".