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A golfer's net score is determined by subtracting the player's handicap from the gross score the number of strokes taken. The net scores of all the competing golfers are compared and generally the person with the lowest score wins.
Contrary to popular opinion, a player's handicap is intended to show a player's potential, not a player's average score.
The frequency by which a player will play to their handicap is a function of that golfer's handicap, as low handicappers are statistically more consistent than higher handicappers.
The USGA refers to this as the "average best" method. So in a large, handicapped competition, the golfer who shoots the best with respect to his abilities and the normal variations of the score should win.
While there are many variations in detail, handicap systems are generally based on calculating an individual player's playing ability from his recent history of rounds.
Therefore, a handicap is not fixed but is regularly adjusted to increases or decreases in a player's scoring. In the United States, handicaps are calculated using several variables: The player's scores from his most recent rounds, and the course rating and slope from those rounds.
A handicap differential is calculated from the scores, using the course slope and rating, and the player's handicap differentials are used to calculate the player's handicap.
A golfer whose handicap is zero is called a scratch golfer. A golfer whose handicap is approximately 18 is called a bogey golfer.
In the United States, each officially rated golf course is described by two numbers: The course rating of a particular course is a number generally between 67 and 77 that is used to measure the average "good score" by a scratch golfer on that course.
The slope rating of a particular course is a number between 55 and that describes the relative difficulty of a course for a bogey golfer compared to a scratch golfer.
These two numbers are used to calculate a player's handicap differential, which is used to adjust a player's score about par according to the slope and rating of the course.
The slope rating for a golf course of average difficulty is For each officially posted round, the player's handicap differential is calculated according to the following formula:.
ESC score is the number of strokes for a round, after equitable score control adjustment, which allows for a maximum number of strokes per hole, for handicap computation purposes only, based on the player's course handicap.
The handicap index is then calculated using the average of the best 10 differentials of the player's past 20 total rounds, multiplied by 0.
Any digits in the handicap index after the tenths are truncated. If a golfer has at least 5 but fewer than 20 rounds posted, the index is calculated using from one to nine differentials according to the following schedule:.
Updates to a golfer's index are calculated periodically according to schedules provided by state and regional golf associations. The handicap index is used with the course's slope rating to determine the golfer's course handicap according to the following formula:.
The course rating is not used to determine a course handicap. The result is rounded to the nearest whole number.
The course handicap is the number of strokes to be deducted from the golfer's gross score to determine the net score. For example, the following table shows the impact of the same score at two different tee positions at the same course, and the resulting handicap differential:.
Additionally, before making the above calculation, the gross score must be adjusted using the equitable score control table, which removes the effect of abnormally high individual hole scores by establishing a maximum score per hole depending on the player's handicap index.
For example, a golfer with a course handicap of 20 through 29 can record a maximum of 8 strokes on any one hole for handicap calculation purposes only.
The handicap is used to determine on which holes a player or team is granted extra strokes. These are then used to calculate a "net" score from the number of strokes played "gross" score.
To find how many strokes a player is given, the procedures differ between match play and stroke play. In match play , the difference between the players' or teams' handicaps is distributed among the holes to be played.
For example, if 18 holes are played, player A's handicap is 24, and player B's handicap is 14, then A is granted ten strokes: If A's handicap is 36 and B's handicap is 14, A is granted 22 strokes: The procedure in stroke play is similar, but each player's handicap rather than the difference between two players' handicaps is used to calculate extra strokes.
Therefore, a player with handicap 10 is granted one stroke on each of the ten holes identified by the handicap numbers 1 through 10 on the scorecard and no extra strokes on the remaining eight.
A player with a handicap of 22 is granted 22 strokes: Example for the calculation of "net" results: Assume that A is granted one stroke on a par four hole and player B is granted none.
If A plays six strokes and B plays five, their "net" scores are equal. Therefore, in match play the hole is halved; in stroke play both have played a "net" bogey one over par.
If both play five strokes, A has played better by one "net" stroke. Therefore, in match play A wins the hole; in stroke play A has played a "net" par and B a "net" bogey.
Let's say that we have five golfers: Scott, Craig, Minty, Danny, and Les of various abilities who are in a strokeplay competition against each other.
To the right are the players and their handicap indices. The course from the tees being played has the following slope: So, using the formulas above, here are their course handicaps from the tees being played note that only the slope is used to determine the handicap:.
And, finally, to the right are their gross and their net scores. Danny wins because he has posted the lowest Net score.
The slope rating is the USGA mark that indicates the measurement of the relative difficulty for a bogey golfer compared to the course rating.
Slope rating is computed from the difference between the bogey rating and the course rating. The lowest slope rating is 55, and the highest is The average slope rating is To compute the handicap strokes from a given set of tees on a specific course with a slope of "s" given a handicap index of "h," the following formula is used: In the bogey formula calculation 5.
A male golfer plays a course with Slope Rating , and Course Rating In golf clubs, peer review is usually managed by an elected Handicap Secretary who, supported by a small committee, conducts an Annual Review of the handicaps of all members and assesses ad hoc requests from individual members usually when age or medium to long-term infirmity affects their playing ability.
This gives uniformity to handicapping across their club for the setting and maintenance of handicaps with the objective of establishing fair competition between golfers of all abilities.
At the regional level, peer review is extended to include rigorous validation of the handicap returns of low handicap golfers. This ensures that only golfers of an appropriate standard gain entry to their elite tournaments.
Occasionally, golfers are excluded from the elite game as a consequence of being found to abuse the system.
To a degree, these regional bodies also monitor the performance of and provide training for Handicap Secretaries at the club level.
Nationally, the peer review is extended further to assessing golfers from external jurisdictions for their suitability for entry into their elite international events.
They also play a large part in periodic reviews of the handicapping system itself to improve it for the future.
The USGA has often resorted to the courts to protect the integrity of its handicap system. The USGA was founded in One of its chief contributions to the game of golf in the United States has been its development and maintenance since of the USGA handicap system